Ancient city of Olynthos
Olynthus is the ancient city of Halkidiki, built on a fertile valley on the inlet of the Gulf of Toroni, near the base of the peninsula of Pallini (Cassandra today), just 60 steps (11.5 kms) from Potidaea and 4 km from the sea. Historical dataHistory site inhabited since the Neolithic Age (5300-4500 BC), the word "Olynthus" is pre-Hellenic and means possibly "wild fig". According to tradition, named after Olynthos, son of the river god Strymon. Herodotus mentions that the city was conquered by the Bottiaiei Imathia in the seventh century BC. Ch. The area belonged to a Thracian tribe, the Vottieis, who held up the 479 BC .. That year the Persian general Artabazus suspected that was about the city's defection from the Grand King. The Artavazos massacred the people and delivered the deserted city to Chalcedeans the vicinity. As a member of the Delian League, Olynthus must have been relatively insignificant, it is reported to contribute two Talanta while neighboring Skioni, Mende and Toroni give 9, 8 and 6 respectively. The 432 became the seat of the public Chalkidean, which was formed at the instigation of Perdiccas, king of Macedon, leading to several resettlement Chalcedeans from neighboring settlements. That same year distracted, finally, from the Athenian alliance. Vrasidas used it as a base for his campaign in 424. In the 4th century. acquires significant political force, as the joint head of Halkida. Testimonies for the action of public Chalkidean can be detected from the time of the Peace of Nicias (421 BC), when we find Chalkideans diplomatic move together and form part of Argos alliance. They have found coins dating together, with certainty, from 405 BC. Undoubtedly, therefore, the public was established before the end of the 5th century. and forming motivation was to protect themselves from possible Athenian attack. After the Peloponnesian War the joint development was rapid. Around 390 BC find Chalkideans conclude significant agreement with the King of Macedonia Amyntas and up to 382 were included in the public Chalkidean many Greek cities west of the Struma, including Pella.
That year (382 BC) Sparta succumbed to the calls of Acanthus and Apollonia, which was afraid of being occupied by Chalcis, to campaign against Olynthus. After three years of war without a winner, the Chalcedeans agreed to dissolve the joint (379). H "dissolution" was typical, because we find two years later the joint between the members of the Athenian Naval League (378-7). Twenty two years later, during the reign of Philip in Macedonia, Demosthenes presents Olynthus stronger than before the Spartan campaign. The city, as generally understood, was the first magnitude and the audience included 32 cities. In the war that broke out between Athens and its allies, in 357-55, Olynthus was initially an ally of Philip. Later, alarmed the Chalcedeans by increasing the power of Philip, entered into an alliance with Athens but, despite the efforts of the past and especially Demosthenes, the city surrendered to Philip (348), who kateskapse. Archaeological dataHistory city of classical times was structured according to Hippodamian system, an area 600Ch300m., With blocks divided by horizontal and vertical pathways. It is noteworthy that is not found in the city's theater. The houses have two floors, with an internal courtyard. To the south was the market and to the east the houses of the rich. Among the villas unearthed are those of Agathe Tyche, the Actor, as well as the Twin Eros. These were mosaics, pottery, jewelry and figurines. The first archaeological finds came to light in 1928. The most recent excavations were the decade of '90. Archaeological Museum OlynthouSton archaeological site of ancient Olynthos operating since 1998 Archaeological Museum. The purpose of the museum is to give a complete picture of the visitors about the history of the ancient city and also describe the excavations and restoration. All this is done solely by the media.